This paper argues we are now in a non-polar world wherein states and other entities may be in states of collaboration, competition and/or conflict (3 Cs) simultaneously with each other. As a result of this shift in paradigm as well as the impact of the information revolution, Cooper explores how lessons from nuclear deterrence may apply to the cyber realm. In particular, he uses and builds upon the often forgotten principles of containment to address cyber threats in this “3 Cs-world”. This research stems from 2009 Highlands Forum sessions sponsored by the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense. The final version was presented to U.S. General Keith Alexander at Highlands Forum, “Cyber Commons, Engagement and Deterrence” moderated by Dr. Itamara Lochard, 10 February 2010 in a closed session at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Building upon Cooper’s study, Dr. Lochard presented a paper on “Strategies for International Space Stability” at CyCon 2012 in Tallinn, Estonia hosted by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Center of Excellence.
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