Dr. Technophile or: How Localizers Learned to Stop Worrying and Love AI

By Dan Rairigh (MATLM 2019)

Dan Rairigh (MATLM 2019)

The future of the language industry is bright. In a world where globalization brings us closer together, advances in technology make it easier than ever to communicate and conduct our work efficiently. The primary purpose of a machine is to facilitate a specific task; so, the question remains, why do so many of us fear the rise of artificial intelligence (AI)? Admittedly, the notion of a machine learning to navigate an area so intimately human as language is disquieting. Where do humans fit in an industry that is so eager to introduce machine learning technologies? It is human to be concerned. However, we do have a role to play in the age of AI; in fact, it will require effort on the part of humans if machine learning technologies are to assist us effectively. This essay seeks to address three essential steps that language industry professionals must take to maximize the efficiency of AI within our industry. First, we must accept the presence of AI – in its current state. Second, we must examine areas of our work from the perspective of automation; where can AI be implemented to make us more efficient? Third, we must actively invest in machine learning and contribute to its development. Acknowledging these needs, understanding the potential, and, most importantly, taking these steps will lay the foundation for a prosperous future for our profession.

AI-its’s here to stay

The hype surrounding AI is justified. We have been teaching (programming) machines since the 1930s, but even then, futurists could not anticipate where we would be less than a century later. The power and influence of modern AI is so impressive, that it evokes fear in the minds of many modern workers. As Priya Mohanty elucidates in her article, Do You Fear Artificial Intelligence Will Take Your Job? “There is valid concern that even as AI saves lives and helps businesses thrive, it will destroy livelihoods.” (Mohanty). Even as we fear the evolution of machine learning, we recognize that AI is certainly advantageous across various domains. Mohanty enumerates on the many unique uses of AI, but the fact remains that people still live in fear that their roles will become automated. Despite this valid state of unease, we must remember that AI helps to relieve us of some of our more tedious responsibilities. We can train machines to sift through data, extract strings, internationalize code, and oversee other traditionally time-intensive tasks. Moreover, AI already exists; it is not a looming threat in the distance.
Instead of ignoring its growing use in our industry (as well as countless others), we would do well to accept it as an aid to our current processes. The remaining skeptics can seek solace in the few areas where AI may still be inept at automating human skill. For example, let us imagine a scenario in which a company is collecting vendor feedback on a new translation management system (TMS). The company wants to improve their tool, but ideally in a way that also helps the company achieve quarterly goals for company growth and performance. Even a sophisticated AI tool will not necessarily know which vendor feedback to prioritize over the rest. In this case, a skilled vendor manager who thoroughly understands the goals of their company will, most likely, outperform an AI tool. Nonetheless, AI is here, and it’s not going anywhere.
Rising Star Scholarship 2019 Essay Daniel Rairigh

The Superhero you didn’t know you needed

Here we reach our second step: where can we implement AI within our current professional processes? As already mentioned, AI exists to make our work easier. It has its uses in some areas, while in others it remains frustratingly limited. Ideally implemented, human and machine can coexist and help one another to create new, more efficient processes. Indeed, with the adoption of AI, existing processes may require some re imagination. If we approach this step with an open mind, it has the potential to revolutionize the way we provide our services. So, where do we automate? This goes beyond the previously mentioned “tedious tasks” replacement. Consider a service that is genuinely difficult to provide within the language industry. Translating from Estonian to Mandarin Chinese, perhaps? For project managers, finding a human translator to work between rare language pairs is a painful quest – and even more painful when they pay for it. What if we could train a translation system to achieve the long-desired zero-shot translation (ZST)? Arle Lommel, localization guru and expert on the subject of machine translation, recently discussed Google’s recent strides toward ZST in his article, Zero- Shot Translation Is Both More and Less Important Than You Think. In his article, Arle emphasizes two significant achievements of Google’s trained engine: 1) It does not pivot, meaning that it does not first require translation to a more common language before providing the output translation, and 2) It is able to leverage data from multiple languages at a time, meaning that it can pull relevant data from any language that shares context with the subject matter and provide a more accurate output than MTs that use a single intermediary language (Lommel). Developments such as this demonstrate the enormous potential of machine learning and prove that it truly is an exciting time to work in our industry.

Humans: The future of AI

If we are to move forward as language industry professionals, we must all actively participate in the development of machine learning technologies. Machines will continue to learn as long as we continue to teach them; in this way, the role of humans is pivotal. This will require enormous amounts of data, especially when we are building translation systems. It is within our own interests to see AI technologies succeed, notably when they are built specifically with our industry in mind. Companies like Lilt are already doing this; in their case, they are matching the power of human translators with an interactive and adaptive tool that greatly improves the efficiency of their translators. As a result of embracing the machine learning evolution that so many still fear, Lilt is, “able to translate at nearly five times their normal speed while maintaining the same level of quality and accuracy” (Hinchliffe), while its, “carefully vetted translators contribute to the system’s continuous improvement and are chosen for their domain expertise and ability to localize with sensitivity to cultural nuance.” (Hinchliffe). In essence, they achieve two goals at once; they design their work around the coexistence of human translators and trained machines while simultaneously selecting translators who can, over time, improve the accuracy of their tool. Lilt is the perfect example of a company within our industry that is endeavoring to pair their human workforce with modern AI technologies. In order for our industry to grow, provide better services, and become more efficient, more companies must reassess their current association with machine learning technology and contribute to its development. Rising Star Scholarship 2019 Essay Daniel Rairigh

Meet your new friend

If there is one thing that is certain, it is that machine learning will have a lasting impact on the language industry. AI will not be leaving any time soon, and it is in our interest to bolster its development. By following the three steps outlined above, stakeholders in the industry will better appreciate the potential of machine learning within our profession and adequately prepare themselves and others to reap the numerous benefits that AI can offer. Revisit the first paragraph of this essay; specifically, the sentence which reads: “It is human to be concerned”. Humans may be concerned, but the computers we train are not. They are expertly trained to assist us with the tasks that we are incapable of performing, or otherwise too time-constrained to perform alone. Moving forward, we must view AI as our friend. Not to do so would negatively affect not only our immediate future, but our projected future as an industry. The concern will pass, and when it does, the machines will be waiting for us … to help them, help us.

Works Cited

Mohanty, Priya. “Do You Fear Artificial Intelligence Will Take Your Job?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 9 July 2018, www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2018/07/06/do-you-fear-artificial-intelligence-will-takeyour- job/#399b7edf11aa.

Lommel, Arle. “Zero-Shot Translation Is Both More and Less Important Than You Think.” Common Sense Advisory, 8 Feb. 2017, www.commonsenseadvisory.com/Default.aspx?Contenttype=ArticleDetAD&tabID=63&Aid=37905& moduleId=390.

Hinchliffe, Tim. “In-Q-Tel Partners With AI-Human Translation Company Lilt.” The Sociable, 20 Dec. 2018, sociable.co/business/in-q-tel-ai-human-translation-lilt/.


Winnie Heh

Career Advisor

MIIS

2019 TILM Career Fair

Every year, the Center for Advising and Career Services brings together a TILM Career Fair that hosts a wide range of translation, interpretation, and localization management employers.

The 2019 TILM Career Fair will be held on February 15, 2019, at the Monterey Marriott, San Carlos Ballroom.

2019 TILM Career Fair Exhibitors

We publish this partial list to facilitate early research by students. Employers are still signing up and we will continue to regularly update this list until the Career Fair.

AIIC USA

Founded in 1953, the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) now brings together 3000 professional conference interpreters in more than 250 cities and over 90 countries. AIIC is the benchmark for professionalism in conference interpreting. It is recognized by international organizations such as the UN and the EU, with which it has working agreements.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Interested in possible membership
Specialization: Interpretation

Bureau Works

Bureau Works is a tech-minded translation and localization company located in Lafayette CA. We want to turn product internationalizing into an easy-peasy process. We love change, we own what we do and are always on the lookout for people who will join our team!

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Project Manager (no specific language skills), onsite position in Lafayette, CA; Freelance linguists in any language, remote position
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

Certified Languages International

Certified Languages International (CLI) stands at the forefront of world-class interpreting services, and has since its inception in 1996. Thousands of organizations across the country rely on CLI to help them communicate with a growing demographic of Limited English Proficient (LEP) speakers. We provide telephonic & video interpreting services on demand 24/7. Our interpreters work out of home as independent contractors with flexible schedules.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Interpreters for all languages
Specialization: Interpretation

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

CIA is the US Government agency responsible for collecting foreign human intelligence, providing objective, all-source analytic assessments on critical national security issues for the President and other senior policymakers.

The ability to speak, read, and translate foreign languages, in addition to understanding cultural differences, is vital to the mission of the CIA. Because intelligence priorities can shift, and countries and languages can increase in importance rapidly, CIA must have employees with foreign language skills to handle both current national security requirements and potentially new missions.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Hiring for more than 100 occupations in analysis, operations, digital innovation, science & technology, and support.
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

DS-Interpretation, Inc.

DS-Interpretation, Inc. has specialized in Conference Interpretation Services since 1972. We believe that when it comes to live interpretation, the human element is essential. We use technology to help interpreters deliver their clients’ dynamic and critical message while maintaining industry standards. Our mission is to be compatible with the future. Interpreters will not be replaced by technology. They will be replaced by interpreters who use technology.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities: 
Freelance and Contract Conference Interpreters
Specialization: Interpretation

eBay Inc.

eBay is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website and apps. eBay has Localization teams located in San Jose and Berlin.

Recruiting for (languages): N/A
Current Opportunities:
There are currently no open positions but resumes will be collected for future openings in the language and Program Management sector
Specialization:Translation, Localization, Localization Management

Honda Kaihatsu Americas, Inc.

Honda Kaihatsu Americas, Inc. offers translation and interpretation services between Japanese and English for Honda group companies in the United States.

Since the establishment in 1989, Honda Kaihatsu Americas, Inc. has been sending highly skilled and experienced Japanese-English translators and interpreters to Honda group companies in the United States.

Most of our translators/interpreters obtain master’s degree of translation/interpretation studies, or have professional experiences in the field.

Recruiting for (languages): Japanese
Current Opportunities:
In-house interpreter/translator (full time and part time)
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

Idem Translations, Inc.

Founded in 1983, Idem Translations, Inc. is a full-service provider of translation and localization services. Idem specializes in certified translations for medical device, biomedical, and pharmaceutical companies, as well as other organizations and entities working in the life sciences sector, such as contract research organizations (CROs), healthcare research centers, and institutional review boards (IRBs). The company is a WBENC-certified woman-owned business and holds certifications to ISO 9001:2015, ISO 13485:2003, and ISO 17100:2015.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities: 
Project Coordinator, Assistant Project Coordinator (summer internship), Quality Control
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

ISI Language Solutions

ISI Language Solutions is a professional translation & interpreting service and leader of industry-specific language access and localization solutions.Privately-owned and founded in 1982, ISI Language Solutions enables successful communication through comprehensive solutions that are powered by a dedicated team of project managers and linguists with extensive experience in the technical nuances of the industries they serve. At ISI Language Solutions, we support our clients with the latest proven technologies to eliminate repetitive translation tasks, leverage repetition, and ensure interpretative consistency.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Localization/Translation Project Manager
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Jonckers

Since 1994, JONCKERS has been a leading force in professional translation services and localization technologies, supporting top international brands in developing their message and global presence with speed and efficiency. Our translation service offerings cover everything required for you to reach your international audience. Whether you need word for word professional translation, multimedia localization or accredited translators and trans-creative consultants. JONCKERS promises a scalable team of technology and language experts, combined with tools, which can be customized to your specification, to support your business in accelerating its presence on a worldwide stage.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities:
None at this time, looking for networking opportunities
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

LAI Global Game Services

LAI is a well-established game publishing, localization and technical translation company operating in Silicon Valley for over 25 years. Our core services include:

– Localization of games and game-related content
– Technical translation of developer-level content for middle ware, game engine and platform companies
– Game publishing-related services including marketing, PR, community management and back end support

Our clients range from small indie developers on up to large game platform companies.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, Japanese, Korean

Current Opportunities: Localization Project Manager, Community Manager, Freelance Translators, Reviewers, Localization QA Specialists also welcome to apply. Internships are also available.

Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

LanguageLine Solutions

With more than 36 years of experience, LanguageLine Solutions® is the trusted language services provider for more than 28,000 clients across the world. We provide the highest quality phone, video, and onsite interpreting, document translation services and localization, as well as bilingual staff and interpreter testing and training. We deliver the industry’s fastest and most dependable access to highly trained and professional linguists in more than 240 languages 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, facilitating more than 35 million interactions a year; that’s a new connection every second!

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities: 
Over the Phone Interpretation (OPI) and Video interpreter positions (Work at Home) for many languages.
Specialization: Interpretation

Lilt

Lilt is a complete, high-quality solution for enterprise translation. By offering the first machine translation engine that continuously learns from human feedback, Lilt helps enterprises increase translation speed and quality without spiking costs.

Modern companies like Zendesk, Canva, and the U.S. Government use Lilt’s technology to reach emerging markets all over the world. Headquartered in San Francisco, Lilt is backed by Sequoia Capital, Redpoint Ventures, XSeed Capital and Zetta Venture Partners.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Sr. Research Scientist; Services Success Manager; Sr. Services Success Manager; Intern
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

MediaLocate

MediaLocate is a vibrant full-service localization company that provides creative multilingual solutions to businesses large and small. From Fortune 500 companies to start-ups positioned to enter the global marketplace, we offer scalable language services to our growing list of corporate clients in the U.S., Europe, and Asia.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities: 
PM Interns and Freelance Translators/Revisions/Reviewers/Proofreaders
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Menlo Technologies

Menlo Technologies is a global computer technology services company specializing in cloud integration, data analytics, and mobile technology. We’ve built strategic partnerships with top-tier pioneers in the tech industry including Microsoft, Dell Boomi, and Looker. Our global delivery model for IT solutions provides a framework for exceeding customer expectations in all dimensions – quantity, time and cost.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Linguistic QA Tester, Marketing Writer
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

Monterey Language Services

Monterey Language Services is committed to bridging the world’s languages by providing quality, professional and efficient translation & interpretation services in over 175 languages. Our expertise includes translation quality, translation processes, project management, and multilingual computing technology. Based on many years of experience in managing translation projects, we have developed new methods, and proprietary technologies to streamline our processes and make life easier for our customers. With Monterey Language Services customers can count on getting high-quality results with minimal effort on their part.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
 Freelance Translator, Freelance Interpreter, Project Management Assistant
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Mother Tongue

At Mother Tongue we help global brands speak their customers’ language. We operate from hubs in London, Los Angeles and Singapore, with an international project management team that’s united by a love of language and a can-do attitude. With a global network of in-market talent, we provide round-the-clock access to expert transcreation, translation, insight and content origination services.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities:
Account Manager
Specialization: Localization, Localization Management

Mount Sinai Health System 

The Mount Sinai Health System is a hospital network in New York City. It was formed in September 213 by merging the operations of Continuum Health Partners and the Mount Sinai Medical Center. The Health System is structured around seven hospital campuses and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

The Health System includes more than 6,600 primary and specialty care physicians and 13 ambulatory surgical centers. It has ambulatory practices throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester County, and Long Island, along with more than 30 affiliated community health centers.[4]

In the 2017-2018 fiscal year, the Health System employed more than 39,000 people and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai had 33 multidisciplinary research, educational, and clinical institutes.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, Russian, Spanish

Current Opportunities: Mandarin Interpreter, Spanish Interpreter, Russian Interpreter

Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

MultiLing

MultiLing is a global provider of patent translation with eight fully operational offices around the world and experts who can translate in more than 200 language pairs.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, Japanese
Current Opportunities:
Vendor Services Coordinator, Language Specialist – Chinese to English, Translation Coordinator
Specialization: Localization Management

National Language Service Corps

The NLSC is a federal government organization consisting of on-call, multilingual members who are willing to use their language skills and cultural knowledge to help U.S. federal agencies in times of need. Members enjoy a wide range of benefits including online language study and retention resources, access to professional development events, and the ability to go on paid language assignments.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish

Current Opportunities: On-call Translator, On-call Interpreter, On-call Language Instructor

Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization

RWS Moravia

RWS Moravia works with global companies to help them provide high-quality, localized products and content to their consumers worldwide. RWS also offers the highest quality patent translations and provides a seamless global patent filing experience.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
 Support functions (HR, Finance, etc.), Localization Engineering, Language Quality and Linguistic management, Supply Chain and Resource Management, Project and Operations Management, Information Technology, Creative and Multimedia, Sales and Marketing
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL)

SEL invents, designs, and builds digital products and systems that protect power grids around the world. This technology prevents blackouts and enables customers to improve power system reliability and safety at a reduced cost. We are a 100 percent employee-owned company headquartered in Pullman, Washington. SEL has manufactured products in the United States since 1984 and now serves customers worldwide. Our mission is simple: to make electric power safer, more reliable, and more economical.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities:
Localization Project Manager
Specialization: Localization, Localization Management

SDL

Having recently joined forces with Donnelley Language Solutions, SDL is the global leader and innovator in language and content management solutions. For over 25 years, SDL has helped companies communicate with confidence and deliver transformative business results by enabling powerful experiences that engage customers across multiple touchpoints, all strengthened by our human expertise and machine learning technology.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities:
Project Coordinators and Interns
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

Stanford Children’s Health

At Stanford Children’s Health, we know world-renowned care begins with world-class caring. That’s why we combine advanced technologies and breakthrough discoveries with family-centered care. It’s why we provide our caregivers with continuing education and state-of-the-art facilities, like the newly remodeled Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford. And it’s why we need caring, committed people on our team – like you. Join us on our mission to heal humanity, one child and family at a time.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese
Current Opportunities:
Full-time Mandarin/Cantonese Medical Interpreter
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

Stanford Health Care

Stanford Health Care in the Stanford University Medical Center, is ranked by US News among the top 10 Hospitals nationally and is well known for having one of the best programs in medical interpretation and translation in the world.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese. Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Regular (set schedule with benefits) and Relief (per diem)
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

Supertext

Our name says it all. Founded 11 years ago in Switzerland, Supertext isn’t your usual translation agency. We respect the creativity that goes into original work. And do our hardest to top it. Over the last 10 years, we’ve built a network of more than 900 great writers that create copy in more than 30 languages. We offer copywriting, translating, localizing, editing and proofreading services for websites, apps, brochures, newsletters, videos, blogs and events. We’ve conquered a few mountains on the tech side too – our portal makes ordering language services as easy as booking a flight.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Freelance translators/transcreators; Junior project manager
Specialization: Translation, Localization, Localization Management

Tiller Language Services

Tiller Language Services delivers world-class language services. Whether working with the written or spoken word, managing a team of interpreters or coordinating your translation needs, we seamlessly integrate multilingual communications into your programs and initiatives. No matter the language, we communicate your message with the same level of care and attention that went into the creation of the original content. Tiller Language Services — we make your voice heard.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
 Freelancers
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization

Translation By Design

Translation By Design was founded in 2005 by our president, Sandra DeLay, with the goal of providing expert language translation support to legal professionals. From the most significant international litigations, to pro bono matters that might otherwise not be heard, we are humbled every day to have the opportunity to serve those who ensure justice is done.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, Japanese, Spanish
Current Opportunities: 
Interested in meeting translators and interpreters who may someday be interested in working in the legal field.
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation

TransPerfect

TransPerfect is a family of companies providing language services and technology solutions for global business. More than 25 years ago, TransPerfect was founded with a mission to help the world’s businesses navigate the global marketplace. With decades of hands-on experience, TransPerfect’s consultative approach and rigorous quality have made it the industry leader.

Recruiting for (languages): Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Current Opportunities:
Account Manager; Project Coordinator; Client Services Associate; Localization Engineer; Software Developer
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Venga Global

With expertise in translation, localization, and creative services in over 100 languages, we partner with clients to help them go global. We follow a strategy of building robust programs for continuous translation and localization for enterprise clients. These programs are supported by an agile production team, an innovative tools and technology approach, a specialized supply chain, and an ISO-certified quality assurance team.

Recruiting for (languages):None specified
Current Opportunities: 
Marketing Intern, Sales Intern
Specialization: Localization Management

Welocalize

Welocalize delivers content solutions for translation, localization, adaptation, and machine intelligence to enable global brands and companies to reach, grow, and engage with international audiences.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities: 
Project Manager, Client and Technical Services Analyst, Language Engineer, DTP Specialist, Quality Assurance Specialist
Specialization: Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

World Intellectual Property Organization

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations serving as a global forum for intellectual property (IP) services, policy, information and cooperation. WIPO administers treaties pertaining to various areas of IP, including patents, trademarks, industrial design and copyright. Our mission is to lead the development of a balanced and effective international intellectual property (IP) system that enables innovation and creativity for the benefit of all. Our mandate, governing bodies and procedures are set out in the WIPO Convention, which established WIPO in 1967.

Recruiting for (languages): None specified
Current Opportunities: 
Translation Fellows, Terminology Fellows
Specialization: 
Translation, Interpretation, Localization, Localization Management

Be sure to keep checking this page regularly as we continually update the list of 2019 employers.