Post-Communism Education Reforms


Please note that the above recording contains truthful information, however, the research cannot be attributed to the individuals speaking, who hold fictionalized degrees and are not actual experts in the fields. See the reference list below for the verified authors.


Anti-Communist Resistance Memorial in Cluj-Napoca Photo credit: Rianna Robertson

Anti-Communist Resistance Memorial in Cluj-Napoca
Photo credit: Rianna Robertson


Birzea, C.. (1996). Educational Reform and Power Struggles in Romania. European Journal of Education, 31(1), 97–107. Retrieved from

Hanushek, E., & Woessmann, L. (2008). The role of cognitive skills in economic development, Journal of Economic Literature 46 (3), 607–668. Retrieved from

Kuczera, M. (2010). Learning for Jobs: OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training – Czech Republic. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from

Marga, A. (2002). Reform of Education in Romania in the 1990s: A Retrospective. Higher Education in Europe, 27 (1-2), 123-135. doi:10.1080/0379772022000003279

OECD (2013), PISA 2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework: Mathematics, Reading, Science, Problem Solving and Financial Literacy. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from doi:10.1787/9789264190511-en

Poradzisz, S. (1991). Romania: a country study (2nd ed.). R. Bachman, (Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.

Profile on the Czech Republic’s Education System. (2006). National Center on Education and the Economy. Retrieved from

Vanek, M., & Mucke, P. (2016). Velvet Revolutions: an oral history of Czech society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Publishing.