Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. It falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others.
Apex body for curriculum related matters:The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
Main Structure (10+2+3 pattern)
10 years in Primary & Secondary: Grade 1 – 10 (age 6 – 15); 5 years in Primary (Grade 1 -5 ), and 5 years in Secondary (Grade 6 – 10)
2 years in Higher Secondary: Grade 11 – 12 (age 17 – 18)
3 years in College education
Students learn a common curriculum until Grade 10; they can choose specialization
subjects in Higher Secondary.
Three Major Streams in India
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE)
Besides the above streams, there are some Exclusive Schools that follow foreign curricula such as the Montessori method.
Q1: What is the difference of interpretation on “trade in education services” between educators and economists or the trade sector?
Q2: What are some of the potential benefits and risks in the increased trade in education services?
Q3: In 2.1 “Facts and Realities about GATs”, it states “There are five sub-sectors in education: primary, secondary, higher, adult and other. The descriptions of these need to be reviewed and updated.” How do you think these categories should be revised at present?
I also agree with Luis that `talking up quality’ is an interesting point in the article. However, I think another possible way of measuring the quality could lie in the involvement of the parents in primary and secondary education. It is known that higher parent involvement in a students education increases the students own engagement in their education. I read another interesting articlefrom the Center of International Education Benechmarking. It states that parents in the Netherlands take their role in their child’s education very seriously and participate more in schools and national groups. The Association for Public Authority Education (VOO), a national group that has a membership of about 25,000, conducted a survey of 787 parents and indicated that 90% of respondents participated in school activities or volunteer opportunities.
What are other measurements of accountability? What incentive systems need to be incorporated to solidly prove the “quality” in order to achieve this international competitiveness?
I know we are all busy these last few weeks but if you have 17 minutes, you can watch a Tedx Video on Dutch Policy and the Future of Education in the Netherlands.
According to the article, what is the reason behind the policy and why is this question never asked? Is the reason really enlargement of scale in order to lower production costs which will then lead to a growing number of students with competitive capacities? Or is this something fictional?
What is your opinion on Europe’s world-wide standardization of “values” produced by each national higher education system? Do you feel it’s needed in order to make European Universities more competitive? What are the advantages? Disadvantages?
At most US colleges and universities, the faculty wield quite a bit of power. The Dean of Faculty is considered one of the most senior positions, and when professors earn tenure they often sit on committees that sway a lot of institutional decision making. Could American administrations ever succeed in wrestling power away from faculty, as the Dutch have?
“Talking up quality” is one of the more interesting points in the article. It seems that many Dutch, educational public relation offices are comfortable positioning themselves among the best in the world for enrollment purposes. We see this happening in the US too [ex. “UMBC (University of MD Baltimore College) is again recognized as a top university for undergraduate teaching in U.S. News & World Report’s Best Colleges guide, ranking 8th nationally, tied with Duke University”]. Are rankings and bold statements unethical or a fair way of expressing institutional pride?
Do the commodification of knowledge and the marketization of educational institutions lead to the possibility that resources that should be spent on education will be spent on competition with other institutions? If an institution spends so much time and money on bringing in “customers,” will it spend less on its actual job, educating, or will it just charge “customers” more? Prices of many other commodities are much higher than their actual production cost because companies need more money to pay to compete (advertising, etc.). Could this happen to education?
Do you think the commodification of education will diminish the idealism of teaching or work in the education field? Will teachers be less respected if there is a feeling that they are “selling” something for money? Or researchers in universities? Or could this lead to teachers finally getting the salary that they deserve?
1) According to the article: the Dutch case can in principle be seen as a foreshadowing of what lies ahead of the otherEU-countries if the Bologna agenda will be ‘successfully’implemented. Do you agree that the Dutch case is a representative model of what will occur in the EU countries considering that it only covers one country with a shared linguistic heritage as well as many other commonalities?
2) Do you think that the categorization of higher education as a service or marketable commodity will benefit or harm European educational institutions in the future?