DD03 Transcript


Welcome to ROAR Deep Dive, a podcast produced by the Middlebury Institute Translation and Localization management program, bringing together global voices from the localization industry. I’m your host for this episode, Carmen Romano. Dubbing is without a doubt, a highly discussed topic in localization. Some of what makes it so interesting is the technical and linguistic complexity that goes into it and the fact that it seems to be a profession torn between the localization and the entertainment industries. Our team member, Anna, had the pleasure of talking to Moon Namsook, a voice actress from South Korea. Moon’s voice is widely recognized in her home country from beloved characters, such as Buttercup from the Powerpuff Girls, Max from Pokémon, and the Scarlet Witch from the Avengers. Being a part of these incredible stories is certainly one of the biggest charms of the profession. But that doesn’t mean voice actors have it all easy. In Moon’s words, dubbing is an incredibly complex profession that requires a high level of skill and adaptability. Maintaining schedules when you have to jump from one studio to another on any given day can be hard. Also, using your voice professionally for long periods can take a genuine physical toll on voice actors, so these actors have to train and take care of their vocal cords — there is even a special candy in Korea that voice actors use to lubricate their throats!

There are also cultural differences to consider. Moon gave us a great example of this by telling us how hard it is for her to achieve the swagger and melody that many African American characters have, mentioning that delivering such a unique speaking style is hard to achieve in Korean, but leaving it out would ultimately sacrifice part of the character’s style. Other deeply embedded cultural aspects like holidays may reflect very specific sentiments of the character, but these can be extremely difficult to convey in a culture where that holiday might mean something else or not even exist. 

Differences in the source medium have an impact on dubbing too and require different approaches. Characters in animated movies and shows are more exaggerated and distinct, and they provide the voice actor the freedom to recreate them. Moon finds a similar freedom in video games, where characters usually have only a limited set of lines that are mixed and matched throughout the game. Traditional movies are a different story, because lip sync is imperative. Breath plays a very important role, and personalities need to be matched too.

For technical skills, Moon relies on using different mic functionalities and playing with the mic distance to achieve unique sounds. This topic led us to ask Moon about deep fakes—synthesized voices with the somewhat terrifying potential to reproduce dub actors’ voices. Thankfully, Moon thinks that deep fakes are probably less profitable than real voice actors in the long run, so although she finds the topic interesting, she doesn’t really see this technology going too far.

But all these challenges we’ve mentioned don’t even come close to the variety and excitement of the job in Moon’s eyes. This profession can allow actors to become anyone and anything. One day you could be a beloved children’s character like Doraemon, and the next you could be a superhero, like the Scarlet Witch. A day later and you might even be the next big voice behind an AI like Amazon Alexa. According to Moon, there is never a dull moment in the dubbing industry!

To contrast Moon’s experience and dive even deeper into this fascinating profession, we had the pleasure of interviewing yet another great voice actor. Humberto Vélez is one of the most prominent voices in entertainment in the whole of Latin America. His voice can be recognized throughout the region from iconic characters like Homer Simpson, Peter Griffin, the Terminator, Winnie the Pooh, and many more. Let’s hear what Humberto had to say.


– Carmen Romano (C): Humberto, thank you so much for agreeing to talk to us today. We’re really excited to hear everything you have to say about your experience in this incredible job.

– Humberto Vélez (H): Hi, no, thank you for trying to make visible an invisible job.

– (C): To start, we would like to know more about dubbing and we thought it would be great if you could tell us all the great things that this profession entails. For our first question, we wanted to know what is it that you enjoy the most about your job and if you have any memorable stories you would like to share with us?

– (H): Well, my job is great. I love my job. I love every part of it. Many, many people want to become dubbing actors or actresses and I’m already one! I’m a dubbing actor in Latin America. I love it, walking into the studio, standing in front of the microphone, watching the screen, taking the directions from the director, watching the eyes of my character, watching his lips and begin acting. I love every part of it. There’s one part I don’t like though. I don’t like listening to my job afterwards. I just like to do it, but not listen to it. Memorable stories… Well, it was memorable when I was chosen to be the Latin American voice for Homer Simpson. It was memorable. It was a great day for me. But I didn’t know it at the time. I made an audition. And it was very hard. It was in very hard conditions, even though the heads of the studio had always said to me that I was a fine actor that they counted me to do the best quality job in the industry and things like that, when the time came that the Simpsons was to be dubbed in Audio Master, which was the name of the company that finally made that job. They never called me to audition. They didn’t tell me a thing. They didn’t tell me there was an audition going on. And it was going on for seven days. And they didn’t tell me anything, even though they always said to me that I was one of the finest actors they ever had working in that company, but they didn’t tell me anything. They didn’t call me for the Simpson audition. And I was running from one studio to another to get us as early as possible to my next call, because I was already late. And then I see the company production manager. He was in very bad shape. He was kind of desperate, almost crying. And I came up to him and I said “What? What’s wrong with you? May I help you? May I do something for you?” And then he grabs me by the hand, and drags me and begins running, holding my hand towards Studio 11, which we reached in a very short time, because we were running. But as we were running, as he was holding my hand, dragging me, he was saying horrible things about the Simpsons. He said “It’s a very good thing I saw you Mr. Vélez, because there’s this gringo in Studio 11, which says he has the best series in all the world, but it’s not true. It’s a horrible series with yellow, unbelievable characters. Unbelievable? Not meaning nice, good looking, or surprisingly amazing. Unbelievable, meaning bad news. The gringo is saying that he is showing off. He’s saying that this is the best TV series ever. But it’s not. It’s a horrible series with rude characters. Mean characters. It’s bad news. It’s a bad series. I hope it doesn’t go farther than three months on air.

Then we reached Studio 11. And there it was, Homer Simpson on the TV screen. And I said, God, he is right. This character is horrible. And I already felt bad, because I thought, well, what’s going on? Why the rush? Why does he drag me by the hand? I mean, this is not usual. This is uncomfortable. It’s bad news. Inside the studio was a friend of mine trying out to make Homer Simpson’s voice. And he would have been a very good Homer Simpson. But he was drunk. And he couldn’t understand the director’s directions. The gringo’s directions. The manager’s directions. He couldn’t understand a word. But even if he was sober, he didn’t talk English. And the gringo didn’t talk Spanish so they had a, they had a translator in the middle who didn’t translate anything. He translated like the movie subtitles where a few words and badly, poorly translated. He couldn’t understand the word anyway. And I began listening to the gringo’s directions. Yeah, the gringo, that’s how the company manager called Al Green. He was the one in charge. Al Green, to me it was just another gringo. Sorry about that. And he was giving my friend beautiful, neat, precise directions, an enormous professional. He was a pro in every sense of the word. He described Homer Simpson as neatly as possible, and I understood him because I can talk English, but my friend did not. And after, like about 20 minutes of trying my friend to do that correctly, the gringo said “Oh, it’s okay, thank you very much. Next one, please.” And then the company manager drags me again by the hand and drops me into the studio and says “Try him.” And that meant me. “Try him. And meanwhile, I’m gonna look for an actor.” Wow, I’m gonna look for an actor? What am I? I was insulted. And then he looks back at me and says, in Spanish so the gringo didn’t understand him, the gringo. I mean, Mr. Al Green. The company manager says to me, “entertain the gringo and I’ll go looking for an actor.” And then he said it a third time, three times said that I wasn’t an actor. I was offended. I was feeling bad. Mr. Al Green comes to me and he begins explaining the character, begins doing his job. Very beautiful. But then I said “No, no, no, quit. Stop. Stop right there.” I was so offended, It wasn’t Mr. Green’s fault, but I behaved. I told him “I’ve been listening to your directions for more than 20 minutes out there in the operator’s studio. I don’t need you to repeat them to me.” And then he stopped and he opened his size wide, wide open, like thinking, “God, these Mexicans, no wonder…” I understood his look. But then, I went on and I said to “Gallito.” Gallito, that’s the way we called him. It means “little rooster.” It was his nickname. Juan Robles was his name. I go, “Gallito, please take” and everybody said “Take? Don’t you wanna rehearse? Don’t you wanna watch it? Don’t you wanna get any directions?” And I go “No, I already know what this guy wants.”  This guy, he wants a white trash gringo. He’s common. He’s the everyday guy. He’s like everyone else, but gringo. And I got silence. Then I walked to the microphone. And surprisingly enough, gallito gives me a take without any rehearse, without anything else. And then this struggle began inside of me, like a little angel, and a little devil on the other shoulder, fighting for me to do it right. And to do it wrong. Do it wrong, said the devil. No, you can’t do it wrong, said the angel. Yes, you can. Of course. No, you can’t. You’re trained to do anything well. Yes, but you don’t want to do it. You’re so offended, said the devil. Yes, but that’s not the way you are, goes the angel, and so on and so forth. And I ended up doing it well, because I’m trained to do it well, even though I don’t want to do it, or I don’t like it, or I hate it, which I did. And then when the scene was finished, when I ended the trial, the gringo came up to me, Mr. Al Green came up to me yelling “That’s exactly what I want, I want this guy!” And I go inside of me, no,  God, I didn’t want to do that. But Al Green said I was gonna be Homer Simpson’s voice for Latin America for the next 15 years. And the other memorable thing was that 15 years later, well, but you didn’t ask for two memorable things. You said one memorable thing.

– (C): So you just briefly touched upon a couple of difficulties that you encountered that time when you auditioned for the role of Homer Simpson. Because dubbing is such a complex activity that involves a lot of different processes, people and technical skills, there must certainly be some amount of complexity that you have run into. This issue perfectly leads to our second question, which is what are the biggest challenges you face in this job.

– (H): The biggest challenges I often face. Everything is a challenge. Well, I don’t know if everything is really a challenge, but I take everything as a challenge. Every movie, every character, every sentence, every phrase, he says, Every word, every single, little small thing. tiny thing, is a big, enormous challenge to me. There’s no other way to face life. There’s no other way to face work. If I wouldn’t take any single tiny thing as a challenge, it wouldn’t be great. It’d be anything, whatever. And enchilada, okay, I don’t make enchiladas. I like enchiladas. I enjoy them a lot. But this is dubbing. This is something else. This is a job, which has to produce emotions in people. My job has to accompany people, to go with people ever, from the very day they are born, and forever. So, I take every word I say as a challenge. I always get nervous. My phone rings, I take the call and then stress begins. I go to the company, walk through the halls, enter the studio, get in front of the microphone, watch the character size, listen to the directions, and the stress grows and grows and grows. And then I convert, I transform the stress into energy, into power, power of all kind, like Winnie the Pooh is powerful. I need that power to dub him, or Danny DeVito, or Homer Simpson. They’re all powerful characters they never write or film poor characters. Even poor characters are powerful. So I have to face every single tiny thing, every single word, the character says. It’s an enormous challenge.

– (C): Well Humberto s, you just mentioned this very interesting concept of giving that power to your characters, and how different characters interact with their audience in one way or another, and sort of accompany them throughout their lives. I guess that in order to achieve these characters, you need to be able to speak to their audience, and that requires some sort of cultural fitness. What I really wanted to ask you is if you have ever experienced difficulty in making your characters seem convincing due to cultural differences, and if so, how have you been able to overcome this challenge?

– (H): Have I experienced difficulty in making characters seem convincing due to cultural differences? Wow, what an interesting question. Yes, of course, the cultural differences between any culture and the other are enormous, are wider, big! I mean, cultural differences between the United States and Mexico. Wow! They’re not two countries, they’re two worlds! How about India? How about Russia? How about England? How about Germany? Whatever you have to dub, whatever you have to translate, that’s the main thing you have to face, the main problem you have to face, the cultural differences. Like, I’m going to give you an example. A bus driver in America is a gentleman who wears a cap, a uniform, a black tie, and drives his bus and he’s sharp, at nine o’clock am every morning at the corner of Main and 9th, okay? And he smells good. And he slept and he’s sober. And he’s an educated gentleman. Well, most of the times. And in Mexico… I’m not going to tell you what a bus driver is. And no offense meant. Like another difference – Mr. Dan Castellaneta, the guy who gives his voice in English to Homer Simpson. He earns $8 million a season to do Homer’s voice. I used to earn $60 an episode. That’s different. That’s the difference. I mean, Mr. Castellaneta is a very educated gentleman, a very educated actor, a fine actor. I’m not. There’s differences. So that’s a big challenge. The President of the United States is the most powerful guy in the world. The President of Mexico is… is the president of Mexico. And yes, I had some horror stories. I remember one specially, I got a call one day. I drive to the company. I get into the studio. I get my earphones set on my ears. I get in front of the microphone and see, and notice, that the picture we were gonna dub was Terminator 2. And I asked “Who am I?” Meaning what character am I gonna play? And she goes “Arnold.” What? “Yeah, you’re gonna be Arnold Schwarzenegger.” What? “Yeah, Terminator, Arnold. Arnold Schwarzenegger. You’re gonna be him.” No, man, no, I can’t do that man. Listen to my voice. My voice is so tiny, so little, so small, so fragile. I mean, I can’t do Schwarzenegger.He is a 20 feet tall man. He is huge, is enormous, he’s big! I can’t do that. Besides, he’s a machine, he’s a robot, a killer robot. I don’t have that kind of nature in myself. And she goes “You’re him. Now begin timecode 00, 10 or whatever. Let’s rehearse.” And then I go “No, I won’t do this. Christina, forget about that. I mean, I’m not Arnold Schwarzenegger, no way, I’m not that guy!” And then she goes on the phone, the production manager, and he goes “What’s the trouble?” Christina tells him and he goes “You have to do that Mr. Vélez.” No, no. I mean, it’s not for me that character you have. You have to give this character to another actor, to someone who’s gonna do it fine, whose voice matches the character. My voice is never gonna match that character. And he goes “You have to do it.” And then I went on and on for almost 15 minutes saying I wasn’t gonna do it. And they, first began to beg me, and then the production manager ordered me. “You have to do it and do it. Because if you don’t do it, you’re fired. I’m going to take away from you all characters you have in this company, Homer Simpson included!” What? “Yes, either you do it or you’re fired. Did you get that much?” Yes, sir. I didn’t want to be fired. I needed the money. I needed Homer. I needed the work. I needed to be there. I mean, I felt so bad. That’s a horror story. I had to make a decision there. And I made it. I’m the voice of Arnold Schwarzenegger in Terminator 2 in Spanish for Latin America. Oh boy. Sounds real bad, “hasta la vista, baby”. Oh, boy, I hate it. I don’t think that answers your question because the whole question was a horror story of a situation where a dubbing decision backfired. It didn’t backfire. In fact, it was good. I mean, some people even like that dubbing. It backfired to my mind, to my spirit, to my professionalism because I think my voice doesn’t match that character well, but when an actor dubs, when he finishes the job, that character is no longer his, it’s the public’s, it’s the audience’s. So it’s not already mine. And even though it doesn’t matter what I think about that. The only thing that matters is what people think.

– (C): Well, we were also talking about how there are different formats out there, such as animated films and shows like The Simpsons, video games. We know you played Mario’s voice for Latin America, traditional movies, etc. So we were wondering if you see any differences or unique points among these formats. And if you believe there are different considerations that voice actors should take when recording for these different types of media.

– (H): Differences or unique points in voice acting for animated films, games and movies? Well, there’s lots of differences, but not only among films, games and movies. But for genres. There’s differences between those concepts and literary genres. Like, you can’t act the same in comedy, or a tragedy or drama. There’s differences between genres. Some of the differences are energy, age. And like I said, genres, it’s not the same, the laugh of a policeman in a comedy than the laugh of the same policeman in a tragedy, or in a science fiction movie.

– (C): Oh, well, yeah, that makes a lot of sense. Of course, genres need to dictate in some way what an actor has to consider to achieve the best results when thinking about your character and training for your character. I guess genres are really the aspect that frames the strategy you’re going to take. This is definitely some food for thought. On a different note, we know there’s a lot of people who want to be voice actors. It seems like a glamorous profession to many. So I wanted to ask you if you feel there’s anything that people find surprising when they learn that you’re a voice actor, and also, what is something that people you feel, take for granted about dubbing.

– (H): People always take for granted that dubbing is easy, that it’s just talking, that you only have to open your mouth, and whatever comes out of it will be great. It’s very hard to make people understand that this job, I mean dubbing, is a very hard job to do. You have to study acting first, you have to be an actor, you have to be on stages, theater, movies, television, whatever. Before dubbing I was even the clown in children’s parties before I became a dubbing actor. You have to have experience as an actor. You have to act. You have to be able to act. Can you act, okay? You can be a dubbing actor, you can’t act? Forget it. That people don’t understand. They think it’s easy. They think you only have to open your mouth. I don’t care. It’s not my job to convince them that my job is hard. My job is to convince them that my job is real, it’s authentic, that my voice is not my voice, that Homer Simpson has his own voice and that Winnie Pooh talks for himself or by himself, and that every character has its own voice. People have to forget about me! They don’t seem to want to do that. The trouble comes, the bad part of it is pupils, people who want to learn this profession to make it their own when they want to become dubbing actors. They don’t understand that it’s so hard. And then everyone comes to me and asks me for classes or lessons, dubbing lessons, “Give me a tip, give me a couple of tips, give me a lesson and take me to the company and tell them I’m here.” It’s not that way, you have to be an actor first!

– (C): Of course, I guess it is sometimes difficult to realize the huge amount of effort that goes on behind the scenes, when you’re just sitting at home or at the theater, watching a movie in your own language without really being able to imagine the enormous process that has taken place to make that happen. And speaking of which, we wanted to learn a little bit more about the directing process, what is it like? And what sorts of things have directors done to guide you that you want to share with us?

– (H): The director’s process is even harder than the actors. He has to see the whole movie several times. He has to define who comes first, let’s say at nine o’clock, and then who comes second at nine thirty let’s say and so on, and so forth. So in that way, let’s say that he is a kind of administrator, kind of a manager for the company, because he has the company resources in his hands, meaning money, actor salaries. Meaning, the time of the studio costs, the operator, time and costs, and many, many more things. And on top of those comes the work at the studio, which includes, of course, directing the actor, telling him the nature, the genre of the movie, the kind of facts the actor got to have, the mood of the picture. I mean, many, many things, among them, the unity of style, the unity of language, I don’t know, so many things that I don’t think I could remember them just right now, I am sure that the director’s work is even harder than the actors. And I dare to say that the success of the movie, the success of this particular dubbing, depends more on the director than on the actor. And there’s a terrible thing: the director earns a lot less money than the actor. The biggest problem with my clients is the very miserable salaries they are paying. Dubbing depends on one person, the company owner, or a group of persons, the company owners. They are always trying to save money, but they can’t save on electricity, gas, telephones, papers, taxes. So, they save on people. Script writers, which means translators, secretaries, actors, dialog directors, people. They want to save on people. And they are always asking to do our jobs as fast as we can, even faster than you are able to. Quality doesn’t matter. You do it fast, and cheap! It’s an enormous, huge problem. And even so, we are always trying to do it well. And wometimes we do it well. Very few times. But sometimes we can do it well. So if you ask me, what would I like the clients to understand about dubbing in order to improve the corporation? Well, I’ll ask them to pay us well. Not only me, everyone. Pay the people well. That’s it!

– (C): That is a very good insight Humberto, thank you so much. We can imagine there’s a lot of different roles that a dubbing professional can take and many different paths they can follow. With that in mind, what advice would you give to those who aspire to become voice artists or who want to work in the dubbing or voiceover industry?

– (H): Well, first of all, you have to recognize this is a vocational call for a lifetime, or is it just a call for the fanatic, for the fan? You have to know for sure. If you are an actor, a dubbing actor, or you are a fan of dubbing, that’s not easy to tell. You have to be honest. If you’re a fan, okay? Good for you, good for me, good for everyone. If you think you’re an actor, then you go and study, take the acting career. But study acting first, not dubbing, because dubbing is the specialty, it’s like cardiology to medicine. Medicine and then cardiology, acting and then dubbing. Work for some time as an actor, you need it. And then you study dubbing, but study it too, okay? Probably for your people in the States what I’m saying seems a little weird because you are used to study everything. But here in Latin America, we are not, we don’t do that, we think that everything is easy. But in case there’s so many of you out there in the States that want to become a dubbing actor first, you have to know, if you’re a fan, or you’re an actor, there’s a difference between liking and being able to.

– (C): That’s definitely something to keep in mind for everyone aspiring to succeed in this industry. Talking about the future of dubbing. We know technology has been rapidly evolving in this area. And there’s a lot of new tools and processes out there today. We wanted to ask what do you believe are the technical skills that voice actors need to have today? And is there any new technology impacting dubbing and voice actors that you would like to discuss further?

– (H): No, I don’t feel any frustration with technology. I just don’t have anything to do with technology, we can know about technology and it will help a little. If you don’t know anything about technology, you can dub as well. It doesn’t matter. I’ve heard about cloud dubbing. And just right now with this situation we’re living now they are trying to do that. But the problem is that we don’t have home studios, or at least we don’t have quality home studios. You see, I have this studio. It may serve me well for some kind of jobs, but it doesn’t meet the professional qualities for international dubbing. That’s a problem. Having a home studio is not cheap. They pay me poor salaries, very miserable salaries. How can I have a home studio? If I did have a home studio, I would own my own company, my own dubbing company now, I don’t know if that’s gonna be possible. In the near future. It’s gonna to have to be possible but we are gonna have to do something about salaries. So we people, we actors can have home studios that have the quality to meet professional dubbing recordings.

– C: Well, that is true, cloud dubbing is now a buzzword in the industry, but it does require a huge change in infrastructure that may not always be feasible or even profitable for voice actors or even companies themselves. And to continue this topic on technology, it seems that it is almost at the stage of being able to synthesize anyone’s voice. As a voice artist, what do you think about the future of these so-called deep fakes? Do you think that an artist will just sell the copyrights to use their voice to some creative companies that will use them for dubbing, acting, etc.?

– (H): This is a very interesting question. Yeah, we’re just in front of that. Existing technology is right now at this stage of being able to synthesize anyone’s voice, yeah. What is gonna happen to me? Well, nothing, I’m going to be discarded as any other worker has been at the arrival of any technology, as any other worker in any other factory, they won’t need us anymore. One day, one very near day. They’re gonna call me. They’re gonna make me stand in front of one microphone. They’re gonna make me say, my name, my address, my age, stupid things, whatever, just to have a sample of my voice so they can synthesize it and use it. They’re gonna pay me nothing. They’re gonna pay me 140 pesos, $5, like they pay us for 25 words. They pay us $5 for every 25 words we say in a movie. So they’re gonna pay me my $5 and they’re gonna make me say a phrase, something, whatever. “Hi, I’m Humberto Vélez, my address is whatever. I’m 65 years old, and I’m happy to be here.” Okay, that’ll be it. Thank you very much. Here’s your, here’s your $5. Well not right there, your $5 will get to you in three months if you’re lucky, as usual, and that’ll be it. They won’t need me anymore. Okay, that’s a future. I wonder why the future isn’t here yet. I bet it is. Someone has been stopping it, but they won’t be able to stop it for long.

– (C):Well, Humberto, this is some amazing insight that you just shared with us. I’m completely sure it’s going to be very believable for any potential voice actor, or anyone trying to get into dubbing, also incredibly interesting for anyone in the localization industry. So again, thank you so much for agreeing to talk to us to the ROAR team.

– H: Thank you again, and sorry about my English.


Listening to the insight from two incredible dubbing professionals living in opposite corners of the world is a great step towards understanding the industry in a much more comprehensive way. It is also unbelievably interesting to see how, in such a complex industry, voice actors are always faced with new and unique challenges and opportunities that make their day to day an adventure.

Dubbing professionals carry with them the responsibility of conveying so much more than just a script translation, they need to understand their character, get to know them, and analyze what is the place they are to take in the context of the new audience, one that can be completely different to the one where they were conceived and created. These characters need to be powerful, as Humberto put it, so empathy and understanding of their feelings, backgrounds, and even personalities, is paramount to achieving this ultimate goal. Technology in the dubbing industry may be moving fast, but, no matter how smart, it is rather unlikely that this technology will ever be able to replace the extraordinarily thorough analysis and understanding of the target culture and character personality that voice actors are so well aware of.

Another very insightful takeaway is the amount of effort behind the scenes that often goes unnoticed. Both actors mentioned a number of different struggles that they have to face day by day. Moon talked about the physical toll that voice acting can take on someone’s voice, and the difficulty she often encounters when organizing her schedules. Similarly, Humberto touched a little bit upon the politics, lack of information on projects, and the inability to really have the freedom to pick the characters he felt most in sync with. These issues, although different, only reflect the sheer amount of discipline and patience that a voice actor must have to be successful. Being passionate is crucial but not enough to succeed in the industry, that’s why constant and serious training is the element that will differentiate fans from genuine actors in the long run.


– (C): Thanks for listening to this Deep Dive episode of Roar—a MIIS Podcast bringing together global voices from the Localization industry. This episode was made possible by the help of the faculty and students here at the Middlebury Institute and listeners like you, and our intro & outro music is courtesy of musicjunkies.com. For future episodes of the Roar Podcast, be sure to check out our website at sites.miis.edu/roar/.

Also, if you liked what you heard, don’t forget to check out our companion series to Deep Dive, Roar: Speed Bumps. These episodes will focus on particular pain points of the localization industry, and how loc professionals are finding ways to move the industry forward beyond them.

You can find both series of the Roar podcast on Apple Podcasts and Spotify. Thanks for listening, and we’ll see you in the next episode!